Vaccines are essential to protect against pathogens such as viruses. Effective vaccination has been instrumental in limiting the incidence of several debilitating diseases such as measles, polio and rubella. The development of more effective vaccines is critical in the fight against pathogens that cause certain diseases including tuberculosis, influenza and coronaviruses. Vaccines that induce virus-specific killer T-cell responses in addition to neutralizing antibodies are much more effective in providing protection against severe illness caused by such viruses. An ideal vaccine can:
Stimulate the immune system to recognize the pathogen and induce potent antibody response for near-term protection
Induce potent killer T-cell and memory T-cell response for long-term protection
Provide protection safely with no clinically relevant toxicities
Effective vaccines must also be easily manufactured, highly stable and simply delivered to optimize delivery to a large number of healthy patients.